A Photovoltaic system is a power system that converts light to electricity using one or several Solar panels/modules. A PV system consists of a number of solar panel/modules that produce DC electricity in presence of sunlight, an inverter which converts DC energy to AC energy for either direct consumption, storage in battery banks or feeding into the electricity grid.
The rooftop solar system can be majorly classified into the following 3 types: Off-grid: These Solar PV systems are deployed in remote locations, where access to grid electricity is limited or non-existent. The system generates power during the day, which can be stored in batteries. The power generated can either be consumed during the day simultaneously or during the night by utilizing the storage devices. Grid-connected: Rooftop PV Systems connected and operating in tandem with grid electricity are called Grid-Connected Rooftop PV (GRPV) systems. These are deployed in urban areas with reliable access to grid. The system generates power during the day, which is deemed to be consumed first by the household or load and only in the case when generation is excess does it get sent to the grid. Owing to the reduced consumption from the grid, the consumer is compensated in the monthly electricity bill. Hybrid (Grid-tied with storage): A hybrid system uses one or more combinations of Rooftop PV systems, grid connection and storage devices. Although expensive, such systems have the advantage of power continuity and increased reliability during either non-solar days or shortage from the grid.
A Grid-connected Rooftop Solar PV system of 1 kW peak power capacity requires about 100 square feet or 10 square meters of the shadow-free area on the rooftop.
Typically, rooftop systems with a capacity of 1 kW peak generate anywhere in the range of 4-5 units a day, which is about 120-150 units a month and 1200-1500 units annually (units in kilowatt-hour).
Any person, entity or organization owning/possessing a vacant shadow-free rooftop area and registered as a metered consumer under the purview of DISCOMs is eligible for getting SPV system installation.